Educational reform implementation: what is changing in schools of Kharkiv region
The new Law of Ukraine “On Education”, which came into force six months ago, is aimed at overcoming the gap in education in terms of requirements of the present, reforms in the sphere of decentralization and deregulation in other industries. The complete launch of the educational reform is planned by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine in September 2018. All innovations will apply to first-grade children only who are going to school the next school year. However, the Law is already in force. How is it applied to those students who are currently studying? After all, the graduate of 2020 is already needed the competence that the “New Ukrainian School” should form. This is stated in many publications devoted to the analysis of changes in the life of a globalized society, and, hence, in the labor market. The question of how could these competencies be formed among those students who will graduate in 2019-2028 is highly relevant.
Investigating the state of school education in Kharkiv region, we have tried to track: where tangible shifts in resolving tasks for the complete launch of the reform in Kharkiv and the region have been done, how the adoption of the new law has already changed the life of Kharkiv schools, as well as we tried to identify pressing issues that require great efforts to be addressed today.
In the academic year 2017/18 the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine has launched the reform of education as an experiment in 100 Ukrainian schools. 4 of them are in Kharkiv region. In these schools, first-graders should be trained by the LEGO method. Since 2018, the Ministry of Education has planned to implement this method in all schools. What is the LEGO method? Today it is one of the most demanded pedagogical systems. It is based on the use of the real-world model and the creation of a subject-playing environment for child’s learning and development. As Western education systems increasingly focus on the development of creative thinking and abilities, LEGO method is actively used for acquaintance with the world around through playing and creativity. The essence of the methodology is that children design on the given themes in various disciplines: on natural history and geography, history and culture.
Four schools in Kharkiv region the training of children under the New Ukrainian School program have already launched: in Kharkiv gymnasium No.12 of Kharkiv City Council, Khoroshevsk general school of the I-III levels of Kharkiv regional council, Bogodukhiv collegium No.2 of Bogodukhiv district council, A. I. Kopylenko Krasnoghrad school No.1 of the I-III level of Krasnoghrad district state administration. Those schools have been chosen to participate in the project that have expressed a desire and who have a good staffing potential. The number of schools for participation in the experiment was determined by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine – 4 in each region. However, given the much larger population and schools in Kharkiv region than in other regions, the number of participants in the pilot project could also be larger.
The Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine No. 1028 of June 13, 2017 “On conducting an all-Ukrainian experiment on the basis of general educational institutions” approved Program of the all-Ukrainian experiment on the topic “Development and implementation of educational and methodological support for primary education in the context of the implementation of the new State Standard of Primary Secondary Education” on the basis of general educational institutions for 2017-2022, according to which a pilot project has been implemented. The organizational and preparatory stage of the experiment was completed in October 2017. The main efforts were directed to the development of educational and methodological support and training modules for teachers and trainers, for educational events and training workshops. It was also planned to inform the public about the progress of the project. Presented during this time information are short messages about the seminars, about individual trainings. Of course, more detailed information about the progress of the project would seem much more appropriate.
Now the second shaping stage is being implemented, within which experimental teaching in the first-grade classes has been launched, the creation of the best practices of teachers’ work (cases), monitoring of the experiment progress. However, monitoring of the pilot project implementation is not included in the monitoring plans for schools. Therefore, it is not possible to draw any conclusions about intermediate results.
In the fourth quarter of 2018, Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine intends to launch another pilot project, including Kharkiv region – on the de-bureaucratization of education, which involves simplification of paperwork for general secondary education.
Substantial progress is made in the field of ensuring the schools functioning in an inclusive regime. Inclusive education is one of the trends of European education. Its purpose is to create conditions of effective adaptation in the social environment for children with disabilities. This idea found considerable support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, which is reflected in the Law of Ukraine “On Education”. In November 2017 in Kharkov, the First Ukrainian Forum “Learning to Live Together” was held, which was founded to solve the problems of inclusive education in Ukraine.
The problem of creating an inclusive educational environment is relevant for our region. Only in Kharkiv more than 1100 children with special needs are involved in the educational process. On November 16, 2017, the first resource room was opened at school No. 105, which has already worked in inclusive mode. By September 1, 2018, it is planning to open such rooms in three other schools. Basically, these are classes for teaching children with musculoskeletal system problems. In the future, classes of inclusive education are being planned to establish in every district of the city. There are 137 schools of inclusive education in the region today, in which 204 inclusive classes function, where 254 children study. However, this is only 7% of the total number of students requiring inclusive education.
Kharkiv region has been quite actively involved into the project of inclusive school education development, it became the sixth region in Ukraine that joined the experimental project of the Foundation “Inclusive education is the level of the nation’s consciousness”. On September 7, 2017, a Memorandum of Cooperation was signed between Kharkiv Regional State Administration and the Ukrainian Charitable Organization “Poroshenko Charitable Foundation. The action on creating conditions for teaching children with disabilities is carried out in two ways: reconstruction in existing schools and building new schools, taking into account the conditions necessary for the organization of an inclusive educational space. Such a school opened on September 1, 2017 in the village of Pisochin, Kharkiv region.
However, some aspects of the project regarding the implementation of an inclusive educational environment have already raised some concerns and warnings. Article 20 of the Law of Ukraine “On Education” is noted that educational institutions, if necessary, form inclusive and/or special groups and classes for the education of children with special educational needs. It is not about individual educational institutions for children with special needs. That is what is worried the teachers and parents of children who are studying in such educational institutions. Children with musculoskeletal problems can attend regular school if the necessary conditions are created for them. However, there are other categories of children with special needs for whom learning in an ordinary school does not seem acceptable. In particular, we are talking about children with hearing impairment. Employees of Kharkiv specialized residential school for children with hearing impairment and parents of children are concerned that authorities only focus on creating special classes. They are afraid that the institution could be closed and students would be transferred to regular schools. After all, the needs of these children are completely special. They have a specific environment for communication and the nature of their activities. Teachers have specific teaching methods. For those who have ever visited this educational institution, it is clear that such an environment is extremely difficult to create in a regular school, and the inexpediency of transferring these children to a regular school becomes obvious. Similar questions were raised during the First Ukrainian Forum. The organizers answered that specialized educational institutions have the right to exist. However, it is necessary further development of article 20 or at least an official response from the institutions of power, which should remove questions about possible closure.
School funding, parental “charitable contributions”: is “black cash” transparent?
Some norms of the Law of Ukraine “On Education” should be implemented now and consistently change the life of the Ukrainian school. How far has the new law begun to change the schools functioning in the region?
The question of “school unofficial fees” is almost always put at parents’ meetings and is discussed at different levels. On the one hand, on the websites of schools in Kharkiv and district’s centers of the region, there are reports that record amounts are being allocated for the repair of educational institutions and for renewal the material and technical base, equipment for schools is being purchased for funds of city budget. According to the information of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, more than 1 billion 150 million UAH is planned to spend on continuation of programs on improvement of an educational infrastructure in 2018. In addition, each of the educational programs receives funding from local governments. Obviously, an increase of budget funding should result in minimizing the collection of funds from parents. Representatives of the authorities repeatedly emphasize that parental care must be voluntary and feasible. On the other hand, the school’s appetite for “parental charitable contributions”, as a minimum, does not decrease. The principle of feasibility and voluntariness, most often, is purely formal.
Paragraph 3 of Article 30 of the Law of Ukraine “On Education” provides that educational institutions that receive public funds are required to publish on their websites a cost estimate and a financial report on the receipt and use of all funds received, information on the list of goods, constructions and services received as a charitable aid, indicating their value, as well as on funds received from other sources not prohibited by law. School administrations have already complied with the rule of law. Schools of Kharkiv and most schools of district’s centers of the region have posted the information on the sites.
However, how to verify the reliability of information about the collected funds and their expenditure? After all, parents collect “charitable contributions” in cash. It turns out that we are trying to make “black cash” transparent. There are also bank details for the transfer of charitable contributions on the schools’ websites. But the norms of the law on education do not oblige to transfer funds exclusively to the account. School has no benefits, and it is easier for parents to transfer money from hand to hand, according to the list. A habitual and at the same time a strange situation: we know that the collection of funds in cash is, in principle, illegal; we continue to collect and pretend that transparency and publicity have already been provided.
School self-government = school self-performing
The greatest confusion among teachers and parents is the question of reforming school self-government. Article 28 of the Law of Ukraine “On Education” notes that in the educational institution may function: the self-government bodies of the employees of the educational institution, the bodies of self-government of the applicants for education, the bodies of parental self-government. Now the main body of school self-government is the council of the school (the school board). Schools have developed their own regulations on the council of the school on the basis of the Model Provisions on the Council of the General Educational Institution approved by the Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of March 27, 2001 No. 159. It is not only outdated, but it is not oriented at creating an effective self-government body. In the provisions of specific schools, in the “general provisions” section, there is often a quite interesting formulation: “The school council is the highest executive body of public self-government in the school № …, which performs advisory functions on issues …”. What is the highest executive body of public self-government, and where, in fact, is the body of public self-government, what public is represented in it? Although, on the other hand, everything is very clear, because the council really functions as an executive body. And according to this logic, the public self-government body, obviously, is the administration of the school.
The signing of Order No. 1649 of December 21, 2017 by the Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine, which terminated the Provisional Regulation on Parental Committees caused a certain lack of understanding, and even some panic among the school community. However, the termination of the provision does not mean that the parental committee was canceled or banned. The school can preserve such a valuable institution, develop its own provision. But since the parental committees are solely concerned with raising the parents’ funds for the needs of the school, it is doubtful that even their absence would undermine the school self-government.
The absence in the text of Article 28 of the Law of Ukraine “On Education” the mention of the school council does not mean that it cannot exist. According to this article, each school should create such bodies of public self-government, which, in the opinion of the interested parties, would perform the functions of self-government in the best way. However, this is what causes the biggest problems. All interested parties in the educational process have little knowledge of its actual nature.
Typical practice of the school council is as follows:
- meetings/sessions are held 4 times a year, before the parent meetings;
- representation of parents and teachers is approximately 50/50;
- the pre-formed agenda includes reports and reports from representatives of the administration and teachers on certain issues and other, usually aimed at mobilizing fund-raising efforts;
- during the reports and at their end, parents have the opportunity to ask questions;
- in general, the format of the event is a reporting meeting.
In general, there are big doubts about the appropriateness of such meetings. After all, reports could be placed on the website. It is not necessary at all to delegate the parents of the pupils of the class, so that they tell others the content of statements and reports.
It have been investigated the websites of 30 schools in Kharkiv and districts’ centers of the region, websites of lyceums and gymnasiums of Shevchenko district in Kharkiv to find a model of student self-government implemented at school, at least according to some parameters that are close to actual self-management,. On the websites of 11 schools there is no section “student self-government” and any information about it. In most cases, in the section “student self-government” there are only diagrams illustrating the structure of self-government bodies. At the same time, it is often appeared the names “president”, “ministry”, “minister”. In addition, a set of photographs and a list of projects or charitable events in which “student self-government bodies” take part. More often the information about projects is exhausted by their list. Sometimes links to letters and orders from the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine concerning the organization of self-government are added. The expectations that student self-government in lyceums and gymnasiums are more developed were not justified.
On the websites of two schools in Kharkiv, it was possible to find work plans for student self-government bodies and reports on work for 2015/16 school year. Apparently, the schools do not understand the difference between the plan of educational activity and the plan of functioning of student self-government bodies, since the second duplicates the first. “School Ministries” are involved in organizing and holding planned educational events. Respectively, the reports are concerned the ensuring the participation of school students in the planned activities. As a result students understand the essence of self-government in this way.
This situation is very indicative. The names of the bodies of “student self-government” are used the terminology of the executive power. On the one hand, this contradicts the logic of self-government. On the other hand, it clearly reflects school self-government realities. This is confirmed by the answers of first-year students. On the question of what functions were performed in their school by the bodies of student self-government, the overwhelming majority traditionally answer that they ensured the participation of students in various activities.
The information provided by some schools causes a certain dissonance. These are a few typical examples. 1. On the website of the school, parents and students are informed that, according to the decision of the school council, models of school uniforms for boys and girls are determined. In this case, there are no sections “student self-government”, “parental self-government”, any mention of the school council. In general, a fairly common means of legitimizing the decisions of the administration. 2. The section “student self-government” is described in details the tasks of the self-government bodies, their role in government and making decisions in the school. A list of documents that is consisted of the legal framework of student self-government is attached. However, the presented plans of the self-government bodies functioning are plans for the implementation of other school plans.
On the websites of district departments of education there are also, basically, the explanation of the tasks of student self-government, a list of provisions, duties. Formalities are respected. For example, according to the information in the section “Student Self-Government”, on October 9, 2015, the general meeting of Shevchenko regional union of student self-government “Sozvezdie” was held, at which the President of the Union and the Deputy President were elected. Information on the activities of the Union as an institution of self-government is absent.
In April, 2017 in Kyiv district of Kharkov winners of regional competition of leaders of student self-government were awarded. As the official website of Kharkiv city council informs, “the participants had to show savvy, erudition, the ability to find the creatively approach to the solution of complex problems”. The contestants demonstrated “knowledge of geography, psychology, jurisprudence, presented themselves as leaders of school organizations, defended projects “Piece of Japan in Kharkiv”. Which of the above relates to student self-government? Only one thing is that students presented themselves as the leaders of school organizations. It is difficult to talk about what is meant by a “school organization”. Obviously, these are formal “ministries”, the schemes of which are placed on the websites of schools. Thus, we have an illustrative example of the activities of student self-government: organized by order “from above”; on the basis of provisions launched from above; to carry out other orders coming from the same place. Accordingly, the initiators of the creation of “self-government bodies” award “leaders and activists”. In particular, on the website of the education department of Izium district state administration there is a corresponding “informative” message: “On November 20, on the basis of the education department, a meeting of the renewed membership of the Council of high school students was held, where the work was planned for November-December 2017 and the Head of the Council of high school students was elected. The meeting was held in a friendly atmosphere”. Photos are attached. Perhaps, instead of commenting on the “friendly atmosphere”, we should be informed about the work of the Council of high school students as a self-government body.
The mental habit that self-government bodies are created by the authorities bodies in order to carry out their own orders and call it self-government put the institutions of power, school administrations and parents in a deadlock. Representatives of school administrations shrug their shoulders and say that they would create such self-government bodies that would need to create (necessary for the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of Ukraine). Parents accept. But in fact, the task is not set that we, in our school, would create such self-government bodies, through which we would effectively implement self-government. Today there are no grounds to state the beginning of active discussions in schools about the development of an effective model of school self-government. On the contrary, there is an attempt to formalize the process again. Therefore, a large-scale educational work is needed to clarify the essence, tasks and principles of school self-government organization.
Learning load: keep everything mature
Another pressing problem of Ukrainian school is the overloading of students. For example, for six-grade students (age 12), the weekly load in the school is 33 hours. One student spends at least 1.5 hours a day doing homework. The weekly learning load exceeds 40 hours. Eleven-grade students have a weekly workload of 40 hours. That is, it is already equal to the norm of working time for an adult. At the first stage of the reform in 2017/18 it has been planned to unload the curricula. As a result, the load of in primary school students has somewhat decreased. In middle and high school nothing has changed.
Article 33 of the Law of Ukraine “On Education” provides that schools get autonomy with the opportunity to independently form educational programs, curricula. However, the question of how this would apply to students who has already studied, what would change in the curricula for the next year, representatives of school administrations do not give an answer. Moreover, reasons and ways of appearance in the schedule of some disciplines are left “behind the dark veil”. For example, “Orthodox culture of Slobozhanshchina” is taught for 5-6 graders of some schools. It turns out that this is a discipline at the school’s choice. However, the choice was not coordinated with the parents and with the students. Therefore, the solution of the problem of unloading and the formation of educational programs claims active pressure from parents and students, since it is more convenient for school administrations, for many reasons, to continue teaching “in the old way”.
Another urgent issue is the language of instruction. In Kharkiv region, the largest number of schools with the Russian language of teaching – 115. In addition, many schools in Kharkiv have classes with both Ukrainian and Russian language teaching. However, since 2010, there has been an active dropping in the number of classes with the Ukrainian language of instruction. The content of the “language article” (Article 7) of the Law of Ukraine “On Education” that has caused the most heated discussions, for many reasons is worried by many Kharkiv residents. After all, according to the article, teaching in the language of national minorities can be up to the 4th grade, and then it is taught as one of the subjects. Another aspect of the problem concerns how the Russian language would be taught: as a second foreign language or optional. If this is the second foreign language, then the question of teaching should be agreed with parents and students. If optional – classes are attended by those students who chose this elective. For today, Russian is a compulsory discipline in the timetable.
Civic and legal education, national-patriotic upbringing: fictions and realities
Civic education in schools, as follows from the statements of administrations and reports on educational work, is in priority. In reality, it is beyond consideration. There are no civic disciplines and electives. Only individual schools specify the civic education as a priority area for their activities. However, an analysis of the work of schools in this direction indicates its absolute formality. Some gymnasiums inform that civic education is a priority area of functioning, that the gymnasium is based on participation in the program “Civic Education in a Democratic Society”. However, there are no civic disciplines in the timetable. “Human Rights in Ukraine” for the 10th grade and “Constitutional Law of Ukraine” for the 11th grade are only in electives’ timetable. Electives are held once a week. In the section “Educational work” and its subsections, it is just the plans of events for civic education, but the information about activities is missing. In reviews of gymnasiums, there are also no references to successes in civic and legal education. Therefore, two electives are obviously not enough to implement the priority direction.
Civic education is substituted by the national-patriotic. According to the acting deputy head of Kharkiv regional state administration, this year the work on national and patriotic education of the youth of Kharkiv region will be strengthened. It should be aimed at the development of national identity and the formation of a civic position. It is significant that in all statements and speeches of officials and school principals, national-patriotic education is placed at the forefront, while civic “disappears” somewhere at all. This indicates a lack of understanding of the relationship between civic and patriotic education. In European countries, it is civic education that is considered most widely. National and patriotic education is separate vectors of civic education. It is civic education that forms the basic values that lay the foundation for patriotic education.
In our case, national-patriotic education is, in fact, a tracing-paper from Soviet military-patriotic education. A clear example is the opening the Center for National and Patriotic Education in Kholodnogirskyi district of Kharkiv in September 2017. Class of tactical training, shooting range, obstacle course and other military attributes clearly indicate a narrow focus of education. The song competition that was held in December 2017 in the Industrial District of Kharkiv, is also very similar to events like in the Soviet era. In general, national-patriotic education without civic education is reminiscent of the situation in the USSR, when all sang “I do not know another such country where people are so free” and prepared to defend the Fatherland as soldiers of the empire, but not as concerned citizens of a civilized state.
On March 27 – 28, 2018 on the basis of the communal higher educational institution “Kharkiv Academy of Continuing Education” the regional thematic open exhibition “Education of the Kharkiv region of the XXI century” took place on the topic “New Ukrainian school: the formation of social and civic competence of students”. The seven institutions of general secondary education in Kharkiv and the region presented new approaches to the organization of the educational process, aimed at the formation of social and civic competence of students. Based on the results of the evaluation of the presentation and exposition, the holding of the interactive event, the places in the nominations “School of Democracy and Social Partnership in the Educational System of the Educational Institution” and “Community Oriented Practices of Educational Institutions” were defined.
The fact that the Department of Science and Education of the Regional State Administration and Kharkiv Academy of Continuing Education were the organizers of the exhibition, clearly demonstrates the awareness of the need to intensify efforts towards the formation of social and civic competence of students. However, only exhibitions and presentation materials are not enough. Kharkiv Academy of Continuing Education should become the main center for raising the social, civic, legal literacy of teachers. Educational institutions, in addition to the preparation of presentation materials, should move to the implementation of appropriate practices in the educational process and inform the public about the actual activities towards the formation of social and civic competence of students. While the comparison of presentation materials and information on the schools websites creates the impression of a significant distance between the real and the presented. Alternatively, educational institutions do not pay enough attention to informing about their activities.
2018 is declared of the year of the right-of-education project realization “I have the right!”. The standard set of materials posted on school websites includes: a link to the Presidential Decree “On the announcement in Ukraine of 2018 as the year of the implementation of right-of-education project “I Have the Right!”, a link to the Order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of September 13, 2017, No. 638-r “On the implementation of the right-of-education project “I have the right” in 2017-2019, a link to the nationwide right-of-education project “I have the right”. In the plans for educational activities of schools, as a rule, legal topics are not appeared. Only in rare cases there is a separate plan of educational activities on legal subjects. It is also illustrative that, despite the importance of the human rights problem, the possibility for the school to independently form educational programs that is provided by the Law of Ukraine “On Education”, schools do not plan to implement the discipline “Human Rights” or at least as an elective.
In terms of ensuring conditions for the full implementation of the educational reform, the greatest progress has been made in the implementation of the project of inclusive education. However, along with significant progress in creating conditions for the education for children with disabilities in ordinary schools, there are some problems that need to be addressed at the legislative level.
Only one Kharkiv gymnasium started teaching according to the program of the “New Ukrainian School”. For the second metropolis in the country this is obviously not enough. At the current stage, there is almost no information on the progress of the experiment. Although only the preparatory stage has ended, probably, there have already been definite developments and conclusions that should be shared with the teachers and parents of future first-graders.
The Law of Ukraine “On Education” is based on the Concept of the “New Ukrainian School” and is focused on its implementation. Today, the greatest difficulties and problems arise in the application of the norms of the current Law for changes in the ongoing educational process. The absence of changes, the implementation of which was anticipated in the academic year 2017/18, is explained in schools by the fact that the law was adopted after the beginning of the academic year. However, school administrators also do not give clear explanations of what would change in the next academic year for 2-11 grades students.
The authorities, ideologists of the educational reform and the teachers themselves perceive the democratization of the Ukrainian school as a cosmetic repair of the Soviet authoritarian school. This is clearly seen in the approaches to civic and national-patriotic education, to the creation of a system of school self-government, in the content of teaching materials that should contribute to the education of civic qualities. Continuing a trend is fraught with preservation of quasi-democratic system of school education for a long period.
School “self-government” still exists according to the well-known Soviet slogan “All power to the Soviets!”. At the same time, it lacks real power and opportunities to influence on the life of the school. Its functions are formally defined as advisory, but really look like executive.
The lack of real efforts in the direction of civic education of children and adults is a major factor in inhibiting the implementation of educational reform now and in the future. Most of the problems, in the solution of which there are no real changes (unloading students, creating effective self-government bodies, financial transparency) are derived from the civil incompetence and passivity of teachers and parents.
The issue of inclusive education implementation claims a balanced approach and careful consideration. Taking that not all children with disabilities can study in a regular school, that they are psychologically vulnerable, and some groups of children have a specific communication environment, it is necessary at the legislative level to entail the possibility of the existence of separate educational institutions. It is needed to include this to Article 20 of the Law of Ukraine “On Education”.
In order to ensure the transparency of the receipt and use of funds for school needs, it is necessary to move away from collecting cash. The money should be transferred only to the bank account, and expenses should be confirmed by the corresponding documents.
To implement proper real self-government and develop its effective model, first of all, it is necessary to move away from its distorted perception, get rid of the intentions to build a democratic school on an authoritarian foundation. Therefore, the necessity of studying the experience of the democratic school functioning in Western countries becomes a priority. The next step is the adaptation of those principles of the organization of school self-government, the effectiveness of which has been proved by experience.
Real changes begin with changes in consciousness. The school would not become democratic, and self-government would not be real until the participants in the educational process understand the essence of the model on which the educational reform is oriented. Therefore, large-scale educational work is needed for a broad target audience: education’s officials, teachers, parents, students.
A key role in the study of a democratic school functioning, educational activities should now be undertaken by non-governmental civil organizations as well. The creation of the extensive system of informal civic education will not only enhance the level of civic competence, but also promote the growth of a public request for civic knowledge and skills. This, in turn, will increase pressure on the authorities for the rapid implementation of systemic civic education.
From the next school year, it is necessary to significantly reduce the load on students. However, changes must already be made in educational programs and curricula for this. The school is the least interested in this. Therefore, parents and students should significantly increase their efforts in the direction of pressure on school administrations to change educational programs and curricula.
From statements on the priority of civic and legal education and the placement of relevant regulatory documents on school websites, it is necessary to move to the introduction of the disciplines “Civic education” and “Human Rights” in the school curriculum from the next academic year. The year of the realization of the right-of-education project is a good occasion. National-patriotic education should be carried out on the basis of civic education.
Svetlana Topalova, Elena Ukrainets
Center for Political Analysis “Observatory of Democracy”
The material was prepared with the support of the European Endowment for Democracy (EED). The content of the publication does not necessarily reflect the views of the EED and is the sole responsibility of Center for Political Analysis “Observatory of Democracy”